Because of the “all-or-none” character of nervous activity, neural events and the relations among them can be treated by means of propositional logic. It is found that the behavior of every net can be described in these terms, with the addition of more complicated logical means for nets containing circles; and that for any logical expression satisfying certain conditions, one can find a net behaving in the fashion it describes.
In recent years, deep artificial neural networks (including recurrent ones) have won numerous contests in pattern recognition and machine learning. This historical survey compactly summarizes relevant work, much of it from the previous millennium. Shallow and Deep Learners are distinguished by the depth of their credit assignment paths, which are chains of possibly learnable, causal links between actions and effects. I review deep supervised learning (also recapitulating the history of backpropagation), unsupervised learning, reinforcement learning & evolutionary computation, and indirect search for short programs encoding deep and large networks.
They show how to use “complementary priors” to eliminate the explaining-away effects thatmake inference difficult in densely connected belief nets that have many hidden layers. Using complementary priors, we derive a fast, greedy algorithm that can learn deep, directed belief networks one layer at a time, provided the top two layers form an undirected associative memory. The fast, greedy algorithm is used to initialize a slower learning procedure that fine-tunes the weights using a contrastive version of thewake-sleep algorithm. After fine-tuning, a networkwith three hidden layers forms a very good generative model of the joint distribution of handwritten digit images and their labels. This generative model gives better digit classification than the best discriminative learning algorithms.
A neural network model for a mechanism of visual pattern recognition is proposed in this paper. The network is self-organized by “learning without a teacher”, and acquires an ability to recognize stimulus patterns based on the geometrical similarity (Gestalt) of their shapes without affected by their positions.
The explosion of image data on the Internet has the potential to foster more sophisticated and robust models and algorithms to index, retrieve, organize and interact with images and multimedia data. But exactly how such data can be harnessed and organized remains a critical problem. We introduce here a new database called “ImageNet”, a large-scale ontology of images built upon the backbone of the WordNet structure.
We trained a large, deep convolutional neural network to classify the 1.3 million high-resolution images in the LSVRC-2010 ImageNet training set into the 1000 different classes. On the test data, we achieved top-1 and top-5 error rates of 39.7\% and 18.9\% which is considerably better than the previous state-of-the-art results.
Their proposed method integrates the DBNs's advantage of unsupervised feature learning with the MLP's classification advantage. Experimental results on two benchmarking facial expression databases, i.e., the JAFFE database and the Cohn-Kanade database, demonstrate the promising performance of the proposed method for facial expression recognition, outperforming the other state-of-the-art classification methods such as the nearest neighbour, MLP, support vector machine, the nearest subspace, as well as sparse representation-based classification.
Automatic affect analysis has attracted great interest in various contexts including the recognition of action units and basic or non-basic emotions. In spite of major efforts, there are several open questions on what the important cues to interpret facial expressions are and how to encode them. In this paper, we review the progress across a range of affect recognition applications to shed light on these fundamental questions.
Studies in psychology show that not all facial regions are of importance in recognizing facial expressions and different facial regions make different contributions in various facial expressions. Motivated by this, a novel framework, named Feature Disentangling Machine (FDM), is proposed to effectively select active features characterizing facial expressions.
Predicting face attributes in the wild is challenging due to complex face variations. We propose a novel deep learning framework for attribute prediction in the wild. It cascades two CNNs, LNet and ANet, which are fine-tuned jointly with attribute tags, but pre-trained differently.
Pose invariant matching is a very important and challenging problem with various applications like recognizing faces in uncontrolled scenarios, matching objects taken from different view points, etc. In this paper, we propose a discriminative pose-free descriptor (DPFD) which can be used to match faces/objects across pose variations.
Temporal information has useful features for recognizing facial expressions. However, to manually design useful features requires a lot of effort. In this paper, to reduce this effort, a deep learning technique, which is regarded as a tool to automatically extract useful features from raw data, is adopted.